FOSS Module Summary

## Module Summary – DSM Newton's Toy Box

Students experiment freely with familiar toys and objects. As they explain their observations, they prove Newton’s three laws of motion. The path of a tossed ball, the flip of a grasshopper toy, and the endless swing of clackers reinforce the concepts of inertia, gravity, acceleration, mass, force, and momentum. Students engage in races, games, and challenges that emphasize the laws of motion, which govern everyday tasks and cosmic interactions. The kit includes a video so students can compare the behavior of the toys on Earth with their behavior in a microgravity environment. By dealing with scaled-down applications, middle school students grasp these laws and master the vocabulary of physics.

In the Delta Science Reader Newton’s Toy Box, students delve into the basic physics of motion. They find out how motion is described in terms of distance, direction, motion, speed, velocity, and acceleration. They discover the effects of friction and gravity on objects and read about conservation of momentum. Newton’s laws of motion are explained and illustrated so that students can comprehend how and why objects move, or don’t. Students also investigate the relationship among force, energy, power, and work and then explore the devices that make work easier. They learn how the six simple machines provide a mechanical advantage, such as multiplying input force, and how the efficiency of simple and compound machines is calculated. In a biographical sketch, they are introduced to Sir Isaac Newton. They also read about satellite motion— how satellites are placed in orbit and how they stay there.